Symphonies of Josef Haydn on 3 December 2016
Saturday Evening, December 3, 2016 at 7:30 pm – Church of the Incarnation
THE DALLAS BACH SOCIETY | James Richman, Artistic Director
SYMPHONIES OF JOSEF HAYDN
Symphony #6 in D Major “Le Matin”
Symphony #7 in C Major “Le Midi”
Symphony # 8 in G Major “Le Soir”
About the Program:
Joseph Haydn was of course one of the most important composers of the Classical era, and was known as the “Father of the Symphony”, having composed 104 of them! The set given this evening was the first group he wrote in his new position as Vice-Kapellmeister to Prince Paul Anton (Pál Antal) of Esterházy, in the year 1761. He was already 29 years old, and the times were changing as the Baroque era had run its course with the fashion for a simpler and more “Classic” style becoming predominant. While these symphonies owe a great deal to the Baroque concerto grosso format in a certain sense, what is different is the emphasis on solo instruments as opposed to pairs of instruments.
The large amount of solo writing in these works could just as well be thought of as an hommage by Haydn to the excellent players hired by Prince Paul Anton at the same time he was engaged by the Esterházy family. The Prince’s grandfather had been a poet, harpsichordist and composer, as well as a military leader who helped raise the siege of Vienna in 1683. Paul Anton was himself also a very musical man, playing the violin, flute, and lute, as well as being an important collector of manuscripts. With Haydn and the newly enhanced orchestra he had instantly made Esterházy an important venue, but alas he would not enjoy it for long as he himself died in 1762. Luckily for Haydn and the musical establishent (he would become Kapellmeister himself upon the death of the aged Gregor Werner) the new Prince Nikolaus (Miklos) the Magnificent also loved music and kept Haydn and the musical establishment for the rest of his life (until 1790).
Haydn’s early years were marked by trying apprenticeships and boy-choir placements, including at St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, which nonetheless often left him literally hungry. He soon learned to crave free-lance singing where refreshments were often served by the hosts! When his voice changed at the age of 17 and he was no longer suitable for church singing he was forced to find his own way, but he was able to survive as a music teacher, street musician, and when he was 20, as the valet-accompanist to the important Italian composer Nicola Porpora, whom he later credited with teaching him the basics of composition. He also studied the Gradus ad Parnassum of Fux, and the works of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach for inspiration. He wrote his first opera at the age of 21, free-lanced for the palace in Vienna, and at the houses of Countess Thun and Baron Fürnberg, and finally got full-time employment with Count Morzin, in what is now the Czech Republic.
When the latter fell upon hard times and disbanded his orchestra, Haydn was picked up in 1761 by Prince Paul Anton and became a fixture at Esterházy for three decades. In a way it was lucky that in 1790 he was more or less let go by the new Prince Anton as the musical life of the castle was curtailed. Haydn was free to travel freely, as he had long realized the irony that even though he was the most famous composer in Europe, he was yet a duty-bound Kapellmeister in the remote Hungarian countryside. Haydn was fortunate to live long enough to be the toast of London and Paris, the mentor of Mozart and teacher of Beethoven! His first set of symphonies, fresh, lively and inventive, provide a lovely window into the world of his youth, and his own optimistic, lively, and endearing compositional style.
Since its founding in 1982 the Dallas Bach Society has been the primary resource in the Southwest for Baroque and Classic music on original instruments. Under the musical direction of James Richman, the Society unites the finest vocalists and instrumentalists from the Metroplex, all over the United States, and from abroad, in lively and informed performances of Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, Purcell, Monteverdi, Couperin, Schütz and other period composers. Every season the Dallas Bach Society presents a full program of Baroque and Classic music on original instruments, featuring performances of favorites like Handel’s Messiah, Bach’s Passions, Cantatas and Brandenburg Concertos, Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, as well as little known works of great music which would otherwise be heard only rarely, if at all. Significant recent performances include staged presentations of Monteverdi’s Ballo delle Ingrate and Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda and the modern staged premiere of Jean-Philippe Rameau’s Zéphyre, both with the New York Baroque Dance Company; the Dublin and Mozart versions of Handel’s Messiah, Bach’s Saint John Passion and Saint Matthew Passion, French cantatas with Bernard Deletré and Ann Monoyios from the Paris Opera, CPE Bach’s Concerto for Harpsichord and Fortepiano with fortepianist Christoph Hammer, and recordings for CD of Messiah and Bach solo Cantatas. Our performance of Messiah was chosen for broadcast nationwide by Public Radio International in 2012. The Board of Directors has defined the mission of the Dallas Bach Society as follows: to present in public performances of the highest quality music composed before 1800, especially the works of Johann Sebastian Bach, to encourage the development of this musical repertoire in the Dallas area for both performers and audience, and to promote and encourage public education and awareness, understanding, and appreciation of the musical art of the Baroque and earlier periods in our own time. Funding for the DBS includes grants from the City of Dallas Office of Cultural Affairs, Texas Commission of the Arts, the Dallas Foundation, TACA, and private donations. The DBS is a member of the Association of Professional Vocal Ensembles, the Neue Bach Gesellschaft, and is a founding member of Early Music America.
James Richman, Artistic Director of the Dallas Bach Society, is a prominent harpsichordist and fortepianist, as well as one of today’s leading conductors of Baroque music and opera. The first musician since Leonard Bernstein to graduate Harvard, Juilliard, and the Curtis Institute of Music, James Richman studied conducting with Max Rudolf and Herbert Blomstedt, piano with Rosina Lhevinne and Mieczyslaw Horszowski, and harpsichord with Albert Fuller and Kenneth Gilbert. He holds a degree in the History of Science magna cum laude from Harvard College. A recipient of the prestigious United States-FranceExchange Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts, he was made a chevalier in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government in 1995, in recognition of his contributions to the field of music. James Richman has been a prizewinner in four international competitions for early keyboard instruments, including first prize in the Bodky Competition of the Cambridge Society of Early Music, laureate of the Bruges Harpsichord Competition, and bronze medal in the Paris Harpsichord Competition of the Festival Estival and in the First International Fortepiano Competition (Paris). In appearances at the Mostly Mozart Festival, the Spoleto Festival USA, the E. Nakamichi Baroque Festival, the Boston Early Music Festival, as well as in regular series in New York, he has organized and conducted revivals of stage works by Handel, Gluck, Purcell, J.C. Bach, Monteverdi, and seven operas of Jean-Philippe Rameau. He has recorded for Nonesuch, Newport Classic, Centaur, Vox and New World records, and his live performance of Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto #6 is featured on National Public Radio’s Bach CD, along with recordings of James Galway, Yo-Yo Ma and Christopher Hogwood. He is also Artistic Director of New York’s Concert Royal ensemble, which appears annually with the Choir of Men & Boys at St. Thomas Church on 5th Avenue in performances of Messiah and the great works of Bach & Purcell.
James Andrewes performs with many North American period instrument ensembles including the Dallas Bach Society, Indianapolis Baroque Orchestra, Bach Society Houston, Ars Lyrica Houston, and the Orchestra of New Spain. As a member of the early music group ¡Sacabuche! he has performed in China and Macau as well as throughout the U.S. and Canada, and can be heard on its recent recording of 17th Century Italian Motets on the ATMA Classique label (2015). He has directed and performed in several cantatas for the ongoing Bloomington Bach Cantata Series in Bloomington, Indiana.
James grew up in Dunedin, New Zealand, where he began violin lessons at the age of five. He attained a Bachelor of Music (University of Otago), Master of Music (University of Oregon), and a Post-Masters Certificate in String Quartet Performance (University of Colorado) under the mentorship of the Takács Quartet. In 2011 he graduated with a second Masters degree at Indiana University, where he studied Early Music and Baroque violin with Stanley Ritchie. As a student he attended various festivals and workshops including the Aspen Music Festival and School, the Australian Festival of Chamber Music, the Juilliard String Quartet Seminar and the San Francisco Early Music Society summer workshops. In 2010 he was one of a select group of young musicians invited to participate in a national tour of New Zealand as part of the Wallfisch Band directed by baroque violinist Elizabeth Wallfisch.
Dallas Bach Orchestra:
James Andrewes, Concertmster
Marie-Elise MacNeely, Principal Second Violin
Thane Isaac, Michelle Hanlon, Helen Shore, Sarah Marshall, Violins
Miguel Cantu, Viola
Eric Smith, Cello
Randy Inman, Bass
Tamara Meredith, Janelle West, Flauto traverso
Mariana Riva, Sung Lee, Classical Oboe
Stephanie Corwin, Classical Bassoon
James Hampson, Burke Anderson, Natural Horn